First section (A) is then answered by the second section (B) Each section is usually repeated
Ternary Built up in three sections: A, B, A
Section B contains a contrast in some way to Section A. The repeat of Section A can be exactly the same as the first time or it may have added detail to make it more interesting
Call and Response A musical phrase is sung by one person or musician and is followed by a responding phrase by one person or a group of musicians.
Common in traditional African Music and African-American music like Gospel Think ‘Oh happy days’
Rondo A main theme (A) keeps on returning between contrasting sections
Would have the structure A, B, A, C, A, D, A and so on The contrasting sections are called episodes Rondo is an example of a multi-sectional for as it has more forms than binary or ternary A composer may change the repeats in some way each time and other sections may be repeated Therefore this would still count as a Rondo: A, B, A, C, A, B, A as it has returned to A between each episode
Theme and Variations -Involves starting a piece with a main theme which is then repeated several times, but changing or‘varying’ each time May be changed in tempo, style, instruments, rhythm, anything But the main theme is usually in binary or ternary form and is often very memorable
Arch-Shape- This form is completely symmetrical The plan of the music resembles an arch; A, B, C, B, A
Cyclic Form - Constant repetition of a fixed number of beats or melodic pattern
During each cycle these patterns can be repeated and developed through improvisation, or changes in texture or dynamics Common in Africa, India, and Asia
Popular Song Forms- Be able to recognise verse, chorus, bridge
Some may also involve Intro and Outro, Fills and Middle 8s
Ballad – A common form of pop music; often romantic it is a song that tells a story.
Ground Bass - A melody in the bass (the lowest part) that is repeated through out the music
Harmony and Melody may keep changing around the ground bass May be known as a Riff in popular music
Continuo/Basso Continuo The Baroque orchestra also used a ‘continuo’ part beneath these instruments – a bass instrument (cello or bassoon usually) and harpsichord or organ - to fill out the harmonies. This would be the equivalent today of bass guitar and keyboard/guitar in the group – it provided the backdrop to the rest of the music
Pedal note A sustained (held) or repeated note, usually in the bass. The harmony on top of a pedal note must change while the pedal note stays the same or it is not a pedal note. It may be a Tonic pedal or a Dominant pedal note.
Fugue a polyphonic piece where each part enters with the same tune (at different pitches) and develops each one independently. It is similar to a canon but more complex with modulations, a development section and an ‘exposition’ where the opening section returns.
Concerto – A piece of classical music for a soloist accompanied by an orchestra. Usually has 3 movements (fast – slow – fast).
Concerto Grosso – In the Baroque times you could also get a Concerto Grosso which meant that in this case there were a small group of soloists rather than just one
All forms used in vocal music -
Strophic – When the same tune is repeated throughout for each verse. Think hymn tunes or Adele’s ‘Make you feel my love’
Through-Composed– Opposite of Strophic. When new music occurs for each verse, changing to reflect different moods or situations described in the lyrics
Aria– A solo singer sings a melody with orchestral accompaniment. Found frequently through operas